Friday, August 21, 2020

Experiencing Religious Information Literacy †

Question: Talk about the Experiencing Religious Information Literacy. Answer: Presentation The picked network for the report is Church Community. The people group intrigues me as a you get the opportunity to meet many individuals when you are visiting a congregation. Here individuals come in with various foundations, diverse social history, distinctive preference for music, governmental issues and society. It is where a ton of cautious discussions happen which offer to me. Expertly too there are a ton of manners by which the network can help. The fluctuated subjects of conversation frequently help to get the certainty up when one is working in the workplace. Regularly on the off chance that you know a specific point you can in a perfect world partake in a conversation in the workplace as well if the subject harvests up. Additionally you get the chance to meet the very cream of society when you are in a congregation network who can come to assist when with requiring be (Warburton 2013). The congregation network is likewise significant as a result of the way that it accepts god needs to be with all the individuals to support them, since it unrealistic for Him to be with us in saintly structure he has sent in companions, a sibling or a sister through these networks when one needs assistance. The cutting edge church network is basic as on the grounds that it fills a hole just a congregation can. To fix a vehicle one needs to go to the repairman, to look for treatment, one visits the clinic. The congregation gives profound fix to individuals. Presently, this is a gigantic issue in the American church today. To take a gander at it all the more essentially individuals in the congregation may offer empty talk to the significance of the sacred book the Bible, yet many don't peruse it by any means. Studies in America have discovered that 82 percent of the individuals imagine that God enables the individuals who to help themselves is from the Bible, which is wrong. 12 percent additionally imagine that Noah was Joan of Arcs spouse, which is very humiliating. Presently this marvel has ascended as of late in light of the quick life that individuals are perusing. They don't have time or to don't have any desire to invest the energy they get perusing the Bible, as they have different leisure activities these days. In the mid 1900s innovation was not what it is currently. Books were there however frequently they were pricy. Individuals consequently read the Bible altogether and hand each data on at the tip of their finger (Gunton, Br uce and Stoodley 2012). In any case, a century forward and life has changed and how. There is availability to everything on the web when somebody is in any event, sitting at home. These are social changes which have affected individuals and the perusing of the Bible. To limit such difficulties the congregation network needs to have a couple of Bible perusing meetings at whatever point conceivable and welcome individuals over for the perusing (Barton and Hamilton 2012). This should be possible on Sundays ordinarily when individuals visit the congregation with family. Such perusing will help in developing these qualities Everything these days is rushed and quick paced and we have built up a restless culture. We can barely recall what the last show was that we saw on TV or which eatery we went to feast in a year ago on my birthday. Individuals these days have limited capacity to focus and will in general get exhausted without any problem. This is a gigantic test for the congregation (Dawson and Cowan 2013). The qualities identifying with custom, daily practice, strength which normally characterizes the congregation are turning out to be very tacky gratitude to the uneasy age. This has occurred because of the adjustment in times, prior individuals could loan additional time and exertion on the work that they were focused on doing, such isn't the situation now. Likewise with weariness comes the impulse to rehash an already solved problem. The weariness challenge frequently clears the way to reconsider about the congregation each couple of years. These can be tended to if the congregation network begins meetings identifying with these issues (Frazee 2013). Contemplation can be a valuable arrangement in these kind of cases as it assists with focusing more and spotlight on the current things. The Need for Racial Reconciliation The congregation can be no shelter for bigotry however then likewise there have been a great deal of times when the congregation networks have allowed racial injuries to wounds and preference go unnoticed. The congregation networks in this century ought not be dismissing these issues and should move in the direction of equity, compromise and mending (McIntosh and McMahan 2012). Networks that grasp, celebrate and epitomize these real factors will clearly flourish, yet the ones that don't will in the long run flounder sometime or the other. Bigotry is a bloodsucker that has been given starting with one age then onto the next. In spite of the fact that a great deal of steps are being rehearsed these days to check it, it has not be completely annihilated (Smith 2012). The best way to manage it in networks is to make individuals mindful of such the negatives of such a training and how it can hurt society. Attractive Outcomes and objective settings Right off the bat this objective is tied in with advancing a congregation which is inviting, noticeable and available. In the more extensive sense the network ought to be such which should heartily invite individuals keen on going along with them and make them quiet. They ought to be caused to feel associated and ought to be permitted to banter with others from the general public who is a piece of the congregation network. In the event that it isn't done the Biblical absence of education will be on the ascent once more. There are individuals who despite everything feel that Joan of Arc was Noahs spouse. These ought to be investigated cautiously with a great deal of exertion. Except if the congregation is inviting no new individuals will visit the network and subsequently the scriptural proficiency will endure. At that point the following objective will be to have kids and the young going to the temples. It is where kids ought to be empowered and gotten so they get the chance to get familiar with the estimations of life and remember them when they get into the hustle clamor of regular day to day existence when they become more seasoned. As time passes individuals are turning out to be for mechanical and are not focusing on little subtleties throughout everyday life. Like for instance if a youngster isn't going to the congregation the person will be never know the substance or teach the qualities that have been passed down from ages (Bass 2012). Additionally the objective ought to be to urge grown-ups too to join the network supposing that the grown-ups participate in they will bring their children moreover. To expand the quantity of individuals from various ethnic foundation so that there is no point for prejudice. Prejudice is probably the greatest test the congregation faces today yet that ought to be controlled at whatever point there is a chance to do as such. Prejudice is hurtful and influences the general public on the loose. Needs Assessment In light of the difficulties and the communitys objectives there are a couple of network needs which should be investigated. Initially one needs to address issues like Biblical absence of education. It isn't acceptable that the current age have overlooked the qualities and learnings from the holybook, the Bible. The need of great importance is to have meetings in the congregation network where individuals can come in and tune in to the Bible being perused out. In the event that somebody needs to peruse out the person can be called up and can be approached to do as such (Nisbet 2014). This will thusly help individuals in identifying with the Bible and ensure they recognize what is in it. Or on the other hand the network individuals can part with duplicates of the books of scriptures to kids, who thus take it home. At the point when grown-ups see that kids are bringing the good book home they also will take a distinct fascination for it (Westerhoff 2012). Furthermore, there is a need of ensuring that children and kids go to the congregation network. All things considered kids begin creating qualities and goals from that very age (Edgar-Smith, Gill and Palmer 2013). Visiting the congregation will assist them with instilling the qualities. This should be possible by addressing the parent about the need of getting their children to the congregation. Thirdly, the battle against bigotry will possibly stand when the congregation network grasps each one from various society and individuals are not isolated based on skin shading. A people group supper can address the issue where individuals of various races can participate. Organizing people group needs Right off the bat, youngsters ought to be gotten to holy places. It should begin at the very start. At that point it will be Biblical proficiency showing individuals the estimations of life. Ultimately it will be tied in with battling separation and prejudice in a congregation network (Parrett and Kang 2013). For the objectives to transform into progress one ought to be vocal about the essential advances that are should have been taken. Individuals should be persuaded concerning why they would follow the objectives and advised how to accomplish them. End In a congregation network there is consistently the requirement for Biblical education, Children and youths being urged to go to the congregation and Racism ought to be destroyed. Consequently to accomplish those the previously mentioned advances should be taken. References Barton, D. what's more, Hamilton, M., 2012. Neighborhood skill levels: Reading and writing in one network. Routledge. Bass, D.B., 2012. Christianity After Religion. San Francisco. Dawson, L.L. what's more, Cowan, D.E. eds., 2013. Religion web based: Finding confidence on the Internet. Routledge. Edgar-Smith, S., Gill, J. what's more, Palmer, R.B., 2013. Carrying youth with extraordinary necessities into the congregation network: A down to earth manage. Diary of Youth Ministry, 11(2), pp.57-72. Frazee, R., 2013. The Connecting Church 2.0: Beyond Small Groups to Authentic Community. Zondervan. Gunton, L., Bruce, C. what's more, Stoodley, I., 2012. Encountering strict data education: Informed learning in chapel networks. The Australian Library Journal, 61(2), pp.119-132. McIntosh, G. what's more, McMahan, A., 2012. Being the congregation in a multi-ethnic network: Why it is important and how it functions. Wesleyan Publishing House. Nisbet, R., 2014. The journey for network. Open Road Media. Parrett, G.A. what's more, Kang, S.S., 2013. Showing the confidence, framing the dedicated: A scriptural vision for training in the congregation. InterVarsity Press. Smith, E., 2012. The post-dark and post-white church: Becoming the cherished network in a multi-ethnic world (Vol. 59). John Wiley Sons. Warburton, D., 2013. Network and economical turn of events: support in t

Monday, July 13, 2020

Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy

Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy Theories Social Psychology Print Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy By Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP twitter linkedin Jodi Clarke, LPC/MHSP is a licensed professional counselor and mental health service provider with over 20 years of experience in the field. Learn about our editorial policy Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on March 05, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on July 19, 2019 More in Theories Social Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Why Empathy Matters Cognitive Empathy Emotional Empathy Is Empathy Genetic? Imbalance The Challenge Finding Balance View All Back To Top Remember the last time you were with a loved one who was feeling sad or hopeless? Maybe it was after a divorce after they received a life-altering diagnosis, or after the loss of a close loved one. Their tears create a response with us. We feel moved to want to comfort them somehow. When you sat with them during these times, it was likely that you felt a bit sad. We generally think of empathy as the capacity to place ourselves in another persons shoes, trying to gain a better understanding of their experience. Did you know that researchers have identified a few different forms of empathy? Two primary forms of empathy that have been identified and researched are cognitive empathy and emotional empathy (also known as effective empathy). Although they are quite different, both are equally important for helping us form and maintain connections with others. Verywell / Kelly Miller     Why Empathy Matters Empathy helps connect people, moving them toward each other in a helping and/or healing capacity. As Stephen Covey (acclaimed author and leadership expert) stated, When you show deep empathy toward others, their defense energy goes down and positive energy replaces it. Thats when you can get more creative in solving problems. As we live our lives at work and at home, we are continually interacting and balancing relationship dynamics. When we lack empathy, we are unable to develop and nurture those interpersonal connections, leading to strained relationships, broken trust, loss of relationships, and isolation. It becomes more difficult to repair conflicts, work collaboratively, or solve problems when we dont practice empathy. Our society relies on empathy to facilitate connections and forward movement. When the empathy piece is missing, we become more disconnected and less effective in our productivity and innovation of new ideas. Practicing empathy is important in a variety of relationship dynamics, such as those among: FamiliesSiblingsMarriagesDating RelationshipsFriendshipsCoworkersColleaguesBusiness partnersCommunity groups Two different kinds of empathy (cognitive and emotional) reveal the ways we are able to relate to a friend or family member in crisis. There are distinct differences between the two types of empathy. Cognitive Empathy Taking another persons perspective Imagining what its like in another persons shoes Understanding someones feelings Emotional Empathy Sharing an emotional experience Feeling distress in response to someones pain Feeling a willingness to help someone Cognitive Empathy When we practice cognitive empathy, we are practicing taking the perspective of another person. In essence, we are imagining what it might be like to actually be this person in their situation. Cognitive empathy is also referred to as perspective-taking, which lends itself to the idea of putting ourselves in someone elses shoes. With cognitive empathy, we are trying to tap into the idea of placing ourselves in someone elses situation and gaining a better understanding of his/her experience. In moments when someone we care about is hurting, it can be easy for us to maintain a distance from it because we can see the big picture. For example, if a friend doesnt get a job she interviewed for, you can most likely see her disappointment. However, you may also recognize that she is talented and will likely find a great job soon. On the other hand, when we are practicing cognitive empathy, we can meet people where they are and understand why they would be feeling sad or disappointed after not getting the job. We practice imagining what it might be like to be them at that moment, looking at the situation or circumstance from their perspective. Emotional Empathy Imagine sitting close to a loved one, such as your child, sibling, or close friend as he begins to cry. What he is experiencing likely has an impact on us, doesnt it? We might begin to feel sad as well. When we experience emotional empathy, we are moving from the cognitive perspective-taking into a shared emotional experience. Social psychology researchers Hodges and Davis describe emotional empathy in three parts: feeling the same emotion as the other personfeeling our own distress in response to their painfeeling compassion toward the other person They note that there is a positive correlation between emotional empathy and the willingness to help others. In other words, it is more likely that someone who finds it easy to practice emotional empathy will be moved to help that person in need as well. It might be easy to see the benefit of emotional empathy in the overall health and enjoyment of our most important relationships. Is Empathy Genetic? Research has found that the ability to practice empathy is influenced by genetics. In fact, it is consistently shown that women are more likely to pick up on emotional cues and more accurately discern emotions than men. In a research study conducted with the genetic testing and analysis company 23andMe, there was a specific genetic variant identified as related to our capacity to empathize, near the gene LRRN1 on chromosome 3, which is a highly active part of the brain called the striatum. It is suggested that activity in this part of the brain is connected with our ability to feel empathy. Although there is more research to be done, these findings are helping scientists discover more about the connections between genetic influence on the development and ability to feel empathy. Nature vs. Nurture Even though genetics have been found to influence our capacity for feeling empathy, there is much to say about our social learning experiences as well. You may have already heard the phrase nature vs. nurture. This phrase references a long-standing debate among researchers, arguing what they believe to have a greater influence on our behaviors, traits, and conditions. Some researchers suggest that genetics are the primary influence, while others believe that our environment and social interactions can help us develop things like empathy. Social Learning The social learning theory, developed by psychologist Albert Bandura, combines elements of cognitive learning theory and behavioral learning theory. It is suggested that people can increase their capacity for empathy through modeling and experiencing empathy from others. When a child has not had anyone give their emotional experiences any attention, time, or value, it is understandable how the child might likely continue to experience the world and relationships without this important skill of knowing how to empathize with others. The child would have missed out on things like: being able to observe someone practicing empathy to know what it looks likethe feeling of having someone empathize when they are in needhaving someone teach them the value of emotionslearning how to build meaningful connections with people Empathy helps to close an emotional gap between people, creating a connection and a shared experience. When we dont know what a shared emotional experience feels like with someone, it can be difficult to know how to do that with others. The inability to empathize can lead to trouble at work, in relationships, within families, and within society. Imbalance Too Much Empathy As beneficial and valuable as the skill of empathy is, it is suggested that too much empathy can be detrimental to ones emotional well-being, their health, and their relationships. Emotional empathy is a building block of connection between people. The shared emotional experience prompts us to move closer to someone, to comfort them, and to offer reassurance and help. However, emotional empathy means that our bodies are responding to the emotions we are experiencing while in the presence of the other person and their emotional experience. When there is a balanced practice of emotional empathy, we are able to allow space for sharing an emotional experience with another person while not letting our own emotional responses get in the way. When our vicarious emotional arousal becomes too great, it can get in the way of us being compassionate and empathizing. Feeling emotionally dysregulated can become overwhelming to us and result in us feeling burnt out and, ultimately, leave us not wanting to practice empathy because it feels too painful to be with someone else in their pain. Our ability to practice emotional empathy becomes a threat to our own well-being when it results in feelings of isolation, being misunderstood, and feeling inauthentic. Not Enough Empathy There are some people who are better with practicing cognitive empathy, yet who have a difficult time tapping into emotional empathy, as these two types of empathy are working from completely different systems of processing. This is the difference between cognitive processing and perspective-taking compared to emotional processing. When there is an imbalance of empathyâ€"leaning too heavily on cognitive empathy and not enough on emotional empathyâ€"our connections with people could feel strained. Although the person you are trying to help or comfort may sense that you have an understanding of her situation, which can certainly feel helpful, it may leave her with the impression that she is a bit misunderstood, unseen, or unheard. The important part of having a shared emotional experience with that person in the moment is missing when there is too much cognitive empathy and not enough emotional empathy being practiced. The following is a simple example of what this might look like: Example 1: Cognitive Empathy Loved One: My grandmother just died and we were really close. (Starts to cry.)Person Using Cognitive Empathy: Im sorry, I know you are sad. She is in a better place, though, dont you think? Example 2: Emotional Empathy Loved One: My grandmother just died and we were really close. (Starts to cry.)Person Using Emotional Empathy: Im sorry to hear about your grandmother. I know you miss her so much. Im here with you. (May become tearful or express sadness.) Within this very simplistic illustration, we can get a sense of what it might feel like for the other person if we stopped with cognitive empathy and dont bring in the emotional empathy piece to the interaction. The person receives the condolences for her grandmother passing away and knows you are trying to provide comfort; however, with example 1, there is no opportunity for the person to have a shared emotional experience with you. The shared emotional experience can feel quite comforting and healing to someone in need. The Challenge Practicing both cognitive and emotional empathy is challenging. It is believed that both can be learned with intentional and consistent practice. The unique challenge with emotional empathy is that in practicing, we are likely going to have to be vulnerable and in touch with our own emotional responses. The ability to regulate our own emotional distress will be key, but it is something that can be very difficult for people to do because of things such as: how we were raisedhow people treated us when we had emotional needswhat people around us taught us about emotionmessages we received about the value of emotionsfear of becoming overwhelmedfear of getting stuck in emotions with another person Finding Balance Cognitive and emotional empathy are wonderful partners and can be a fantastic pair when practiced with balance. The ability to take someones perspective and understand what it might be like to be him or her (cognitive empathy), as well as the ability to meet someone where he or she is emotionally and have a shared emotional experience (emotional empathy), can be a game-changer for most any relationship dynamic. When people feel seen, heard, and understood, using both cognitive and emotional empathy, we can do great things together. This empathetic balance helps allow for things like: CollaborationProblem SolvingCreativityEvaluationNegotiationIdentifying needsMeeting needsFeeling safeEmotional connectionTrust What You Can Do Do you want to improve your relationships with coworkers, your family members, friends, or your spouse? Practicing the balance of cognitive and emotional empathy can certainly help. Even if you feel you never learned how to empathize with others, or never had an experience of anyone empathizing with you, remember that skills of empathy can be learned. There are many things we can do to begin practicing empathy in our homes, our workplaces, and in our communities. Put Aside Your Own Viewpoints We often dont realize how much our experiences and own beliefs are influencing how we perceive people and situations. Slowing ourselves down a bit to put those things aside can help us focus on the person in front of us and help us tune in better to what is happening for him or her. Use Your Imagination As people share with you, try to imagine what it is like to be them. Use the images they are sharing, their emotions, or their circumstances and try to place yourself there, just to see what it might feel like to be them in these moments. Actively Listen Many times we try to listen to people while already developing our response or defense to what they are saying. Not only are we not able to hear what they are saying, but we often miss key pieces of information that can help us better understand what they are trying to convey. Give yourself permission to turn down the volume on your own voice and turn up the volume on the other persons voice. Be Curious It can be helpful to come from a place of curiosity about someone as they are sharing with you. As you ask them questions about their experiences, you are letting them know you are actively listening and that you want to understand. This helps people feel seen and heard and its a nice way to practice empathy. Dont Feel the Need to Fix When we are around someone in need, especially when they are experiencing challenging emotions, it can be easy for us to want to jump in and fix it. We dont like to see people hurting and we often to want to make them laugh, cheer them up, and help them look on the bright side. Even though you are trying to be helpful, this can leave people feeling unseen and unheard. Just offer space for people to share and remember that you are not responsible for fixing them. Benefits of Empathy

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Plant Domestication Dates and Locations

The domestication of plants is one of the first and most crucial steps in the development of a full-fledged, reliable agricultural (Neolithic) economy. To successfully feed a society using plants, the first humans had to continually work to improve their yield in quality and quantity. Plant domestication arose as an approach to growing and harvesting more effectively. What Is a Domesticated Plant? The traditional definition of a domesticated plant is one that has been changed from its natural state until it is no longer able to grow and reproduce without human intervention. The purpose of plant domestication is to adapt plants to make them optimal for human use/consumption. Just as the earliest domesticated crops were groomed to meet human needs, farmers had to learn to meet the needs of their tamed plants so that they would produce high-quality, bountiful, and reliable crops. In a way, they were groomed too. Plant domestication is a slow and tiresome process that is only successful when both parties—humans and plants—benefit from each other through a mutualistic relationship. The result of thousands of years of this symbiosis came to be known as coevolution. Â   Coevolution Coevolution describes the process of two species evolving to suit each others needs. Plant domestication through artificial selection is one of the best examples of this. When a human tends a plant with favorable attributes, perhaps because it has the largest and sweetest fruits or most resilient husk, and saves the seeds to replant, they are essentially guaranteeing the continuation of that particular organism. In this way, a farmer can select for the properties they desire by giving special treatment only to the best and most successful plants. Their crop, in turn, starts to take on the desirable properties the farmer selected for and disadvantageous attributes are extinguished over time. Though plant domestication via artificial selection is not foolproof—complications include long-distance trading and uncontrolled seed dispersal, accidental cross-breeding of wild and domesticated plants, and unexpected disease wiping out genetically similar plants—it demonstrates that human and plant behavior can become intertwined. When plants do what is expected of them by humans, humans work to preserve them. Examples of Domesticated Plants The domestication histories of various plants show advancements in plant-taming practices. Organized by the earliest to the most recent domesticated plants, this table provides an overview of plant domestication with the plant, location, and date of domestication. Click through to learn more about each plant. Table of Domesticated Plants Plant Location Date Emmer wheat Near East 9000 BCE Fig trees Near East 9000 BCE Foxtail Millet East Asia 9000 BCE Flax Near East 9000 BCE Peas Near East 9000 BCE Einkorn wheat Near East 8500 BCE Barley Near East 8500 BCE Chickpea Anatolia 8500 BCE Bottle gourd Asia 8000 BCE Bottle gourd Central America 8000 BCE Rice Asia 8000 BCE Potatoes Andes Mountains 8000 BCE Beans South America 8000 BCE Squash Central America 8000 BCE Maize Central America 7000 BCE Water Chestnut Asia 7000 BCE Perilla Asia 7000 BCE Burdock Asia 7000 BCE Rye Southwest Asia 6600 BCE Broomcorn millet East Asia 6000 BCE Bread wheat Near East 6000 BCE Manioc/Cassava South America 6000 BCE Chenopodium South America 5500 BCE Date Palm Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Avocado Central America 5000 BCE Grapevine Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Cotton Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Bananas Island Southeast Asia 5000 BCE Beans Central America 5000 BCE Opium Poppy Europe 5000 BCE Chili peppers South America 4000 BCE Amaranth Central America 4000 BCE Watermelon Near East 4000 BCE Olives Near East 4000 BCE Cotton Peru 4000 BCE Apples Central Asia 3500 BCE Pomegranate Iran 3500 BCE Garlic Central Asia 3500 BCE Hemp East Asia 3500 BCE Cotton Mesoamerica 3000 BCE Soybean East Asia 3000 BCE Azuki Bean East Asia 3000 BCE Coca South America 3000 BCE Sago Palm Southeast Asia 3000 BCE Squash North America 3000 BCE Sunflower Central America 2600 BCE Rice India 2500 BCE Sweet Potato Peru 2500 BCE Pearl millet Africa 2500 BCE Sesame Indian subcontinent 2500 BCE Marsh elder (Iva annua) North America 2400 BCE Sorghum Africa 2000 BCE Sunflower North America 2000 BCE Bottle gourd Africa 2000 BCE Saffron Mediterranean 1900 BCE Chenopodium China 1900 BCE Chenopodium North America 1800 BCE Chocolate Mesoamerica 1600 BCE Coconut Southeast Asia 1500 BCE Rice Africa 1500 BCE Tobacco South America 1000 BCE Eggplant Asia 1st century BCE Maguey Mesoamerica 600 CE Edamame China 13th century CE Vanilla Central America 14th century CE Dates and locations of plant domestication

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Movie Review Star Wars - 2035 Words

When George Lucas first pitched the idea of Star Wars, a space-western, to movie executives back in the 1970’s; I’m sure he never imagined it to be the cultural phenomenon that it turned out to be. The original Star Wars trilogy (Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi), earned more two billion dollars, after adjusted for inflation in North America (1). Then sixteen years later the next three Star Wars movies were released (Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith), and earned more then 1.5 billion dollars at the box office in North America after adjusted for inflation (1). Not only were the movies box office hits, the movies were also critically acclaimed. Episode VI was nominated for 11 Oscars including Best Picture and won seven including a special achievement award (9). 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Officer Selection Free Essays

Because of the range of duties, officers should possess certain traits: hectically agility, the ability to cope with difficult situations, well-developed writing skills, good communication skills, sound Judgment, compassion, strong powers of observation, and the ability to both exert and respect commands of authority. Minimum Requirements Every department sets its own standards when considering candidates for police officers, however most departments require a series of minimum standards which perspective applicants must have. All applicants must be at least 21 years of age and have or be eligible to receive a driver’s license because their primary duty Is patrol, ND they must be able to drive to respond to Incidents. We will write a custom essay sample on Officer Selection or any similar topic only for you Order Now Police officers must also be able to possess a firearm. In order to qualify to own a firearm, a person must be at least twenty-one years old. Applicants must also have no Felony convictions. Convicted felons also are prohibited from possessing a firearm, which thereby bars them from becoming police officers. Individuals with domestic violence convictions are no longer able to possess a firearm, thereby prohibiting them from becoming police officers as well (Grant Terry, 2009). Finally many police departments now have educational standards for recruits. Nearly all departments require officers to have at least a high school diploma. And many require at least some college credits. Written Examination The written examination is the first step in becoming a police officer once a formal application has been submitted. The test varies by department, but It might be a civil service exam, an exam produced by the individual police department, or one produced by a private testing company. The exam does not test specific legal or criminal Justice knowledge, but rather evaluates the candidate’s basic reading, writing, and comprehension skills. The exam will likely contain a number of different sections, whereby the candidate must be able to understand and write In English, write a sample essay, understand basic mathematics, memorize facts, show sound 1 OFF reasoning Ana logic, Ana analyze potential scenarios . For clamatorial ten written examination is developed by the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) and measures reading comprehension and writing abilities (caperers. Com, 2011). Departmental Interview Departmental Interview will evaluate the applicant’s interpersonal skills, problem solving, oral communication and other abilities not tested by other examination components. The interview is not scored; however, the interview panel will make recommendations regarding who should proceed in the final hiring process. The interview can be structured, unstructured, or a combination or both. In a structured interview, the candidate is asked a series of questions regarding the Job and his or her specific abilities. Structured questions such as â€Å"Do you drink alcohol†, usually require specified answers direct answers. The alternative to this would be to conduct a semi structured interview with open ended questions on particular topics. Structured interviews allow for a better comparison of candidates on specific topics, pen-ended questions are likely to elicit more information. Though the candidate must pass all phases of the selection process in order to be hired as a police officer, the interview process is critical in the assessment of the candidate’s attitudes, appearance, and demeanor. Physical Ability Examination The Physical Ability Examination will measure physical performance through a series of exercises that will be administered on a pass/fail basis. Measuring a police candidate’s level of physical agility is a crucial part of the selection process, although the physical agility test has been controversial and has undergone significant hangs since its inception (Grant Terry, 2009). The Physical Ability Examination has gone through many changes. Until the sass’s the test required applicants to demonstrate substantial upper body strength which kept many women from completing the test successfully thereby eliminating them from the candidate pool. The introduction of Title VII in 1972 as well as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines on sex discrimination barred the refusal to hire a female applicant because of characteristics attributed to women as a class and thus the physical agility tests have changed considerably in the past few decades. Psychological and Polygraph Tests A Polygraph Examination is used to verify the veracity and accuracy of information submitted by candidates regarding, but not necessarily limited to: use of controlled substances; driving, criminal, medical and employment history; and other Job-related factors. The polygraph works by recording involuntary physiological changes in the body that occur when a person is partaking in conscious deceit. The purpose of the psychological screening process is to measure intelligence and to identify personality characteristics and any mental disorders that may lead to problematic behavior in he future (Grant Terry, 2009). Psychological screening, particularly those measuring conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and integrity – have been shown to aid in the prediction of on-the-Job performance across a wide variety of occupations, including peace officers (POST. A. Gob, 2011) It is important to screen out individuals who may exhibit mental or personality deficits, because police officers interact with individuals on a daily basis and often in high-stress situations. Background Investigation I en employment, connecter Ana Docudrama Investigation consists AT a tongue duty of the candidate’s history prior to appointment to determine fitness for this employment. Reasons for rejection include use of controlled substances, felony convictions, repeated or serious violations of the law, inability to work cooperatively with co-workers, inability to accept supervision, or other relevant factors. Candidates who are disqualified during the background investigation process must wait two years from the date of disqualification before they may reapply to take the Police Officer examination. Candidates who are disqualified because of uncorrectable deiced problems, serious drug abuse or because of criminal records may possibly not be allowed to reapply. Training Once a police candidate has passed through the selection process, he or she is hired on probation, a trial period of one or two years during which the officer is evaluated. This probationary period begins with training at the police academy, a school where officers learn on-the-Job techniques prior to receiving full police powers. Officers must train at the academy for up to 1,100 hours, and they receive full pay and benefits from the time they enter the academy (Grant Terry, 2009). Training is rigorous, demanding and exhausting. It is also a rewarding life-changing experience. New officers learn how much they are capable of by succeeding at seemingly impossible challenges, both physical and mental Mainland. Com, 2011). While in the academy, the officer receives educational as well as practical physical The Los Angles Police Department (LAPS) Academy Curriculum includes training. Academics, which encompasses arrest and booking procedures, preliminary investigation techniques, radio and communications, report writing, traffic investigation, and traffic enforcement, Driving, which includes emergency procedures ND defensive driving techniques, Firearms Training, which trains candidates in effective and safe use of police issued firearms, Law, which covers search and seizure, evidence, laws of arrest, crimes against persons and property, sex crimes, crimes against children, and other general criminal statutes falling under the California Penal Code, Los Angles Municipal Code, Welfare and Institutions Code, and Federal Laws, and finally physical training which builds strength and endurance through physical conditioning while promoting a positive attitude toward a fitness lifestyle. It also encompasses training in physical arrest techniques, controls, and weaponless defense Mainland. Com, 2011). Development Once a new police officer leaves the academy, they are assigned a field training officer (FOOT) who assists the new officer to acclimate into the police culture, or experience the solicitation process. Solicitation involves learning the values, social processes, and behaviors associated with the police institution. It involves the patterns of interaction that depend on the relations of individuals in particular settings (Grant Terry, 2009). Foot can have a significant influence over new officers ND assist them in dealing with the inevitable stress and cynicism of the Job. Conclusion Selecting qualified police officers is a lengthy, competitive process, involving multiple phases. Candidates are exposed too battery of tests both physically and mentally to ascertain their overall qualifications and abilities. How to cite Officer Selection, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson free essay sample

Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson Jesse Jackson Psy/304 February 4, 2001 Dr. Marcy Satan Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson Introduction Michael Jackson was born August 29, 1958. Born the eighth of 10 children, Michael grew up in a working class family in a small three bedroom home in Gary, Indiana. As a child, Michael struggled with his fame. He never lived a normal childhood and throughout his adulthood he tried to recapture his lost youth. Although labeled as an outstanding entertainer and humanitarian in the world, Michael became dependent on pain medications. Scandals of child molestation and Michael’s obsession with his appearance further fueled his addiction. Overdosing on pain medication ultimately would take the life of Michael Jackson on June 25, 2009. Influences of Heredity and Environment According to Kowalski Weston (2009) He had sleepovers with kids that further led to allegations of child molestation. Michael did not see that he was doing anything wrong. We will write a custom essay sample on Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In his mind he was a kid at heart and was trying to recapture his lost childhood. These issues led Michael to have an emotional and social development problem. Family Issues â€Å"The importance of parents to child development is sufficiently obvious that it is practically axiomatic† (Sheppard, 2008). Michael had a very rocky relationship with his father, Joseph Jackson. Michael’s father would push Michael to perfection. Even though Michael was only a kid at the time, he was to rehearse daily and if he ade a mistake his father would beat him. According to Drehle (2009), â€Å"Joe Jackson drove his sons relentlessly. He ridiculed their shortcomings and punished them for their mistakes. He supervised daily practice sessions with a whip in his hand; he beat the kids with fists, hangers, a razor strop. † Michael grew deathly afraid of his father and labeled his father as a vicious and mean man. Michael was not allowed to play with the other kids in the neighborhood. He would go to school, when not home schooled, go home, and practice until bedtime. Michael resented his father for taking away his childhood. Michaels never understood why his father pushed him so hard. Michael’s relationship with this father drove him to seek perfection. No matter what Michael accomplished in life, he continued to seek to please his father. Theories of Personality As Michael evolved into his teenage and adult years, he could not grasp his identity. â€Å"Erikson described identity as a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image† (Cherry, 2012). Michael knew what was expected of him. He was viewed as a great entertainer, but he struggled with his self-identity. Michael’s lack of self-image is explained by ‘Erikson’s Psychosocial Theories of  Personality’. According to Kowalski Weston (2009), â€Å"Erikson observed that adolescents wrestle with questions about who they are and what they believe during puberty, a time in which teenagers have a surge of new feelings and impulses. † Michael’s body was going through changes that he could not readily adapt. His voice deepened and he struggled with acne. He became obsessed with his appearance and through the years changed his appearance through plastic surgeries. Michael ultimately throughout his life was going through an identity crisis. â€Å"In Erik Eriksons stages of psychosocial development, the emergence of an identity crisis occurs during the teenage years in which people struggle between feelings of identity versus role confusion† (Cherry, 2009). Michael struggled to make a commitment to his identity. His identity status could best described as moratorium, â€Å"the status of a person who is actively involved in exploring different identities, but has not made a commitment† (Cherry, 2009). Theoretical Approach