Monday, July 13, 2020

Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy

Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy Theories Social Psychology Print Cognitive vs. Emotional Empathy By Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP twitter linkedin Jodi Clarke, LPC/MHSP is a licensed professional counselor and mental health service provider with over 20 years of experience in the field. Learn about our editorial policy Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on March 05, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on July 19, 2019 More in Theories Social Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Why Empathy Matters Cognitive Empathy Emotional Empathy Is Empathy Genetic? Imbalance The Challenge Finding Balance View All Back To Top Remember the last time you were with a loved one who was feeling sad or hopeless? Maybe it was after a divorce after they received a life-altering diagnosis, or after the loss of a close loved one. Their tears create a response with us. We feel moved to want to comfort them somehow. When you sat with them during these times, it was likely that you felt a bit sad. We generally think of empathy as the capacity to place ourselves in another persons shoes, trying to gain a better understanding of their experience. Did you know that researchers have identified a few different forms of empathy? Two primary forms of empathy that have been identified and researched are cognitive empathy and emotional empathy (also known as effective empathy). Although they are quite different, both are equally important for helping us form and maintain connections with others. Verywell / Kelly Miller     Why Empathy Matters Empathy helps connect people, moving them toward each other in a helping and/or healing capacity. As Stephen Covey (acclaimed author and leadership expert) stated, When you show deep empathy toward others, their defense energy goes down and positive energy replaces it. Thats when you can get more creative in solving problems. As we live our lives at work and at home, we are continually interacting and balancing relationship dynamics. When we lack empathy, we are unable to develop and nurture those interpersonal connections, leading to strained relationships, broken trust, loss of relationships, and isolation. It becomes more difficult to repair conflicts, work collaboratively, or solve problems when we dont practice empathy. Our society relies on empathy to facilitate connections and forward movement. When the empathy piece is missing, we become more disconnected and less effective in our productivity and innovation of new ideas. Practicing empathy is important in a variety of relationship dynamics, such as those among: FamiliesSiblingsMarriagesDating RelationshipsFriendshipsCoworkersColleaguesBusiness partnersCommunity groups Two different kinds of empathy (cognitive and emotional) reveal the ways we are able to relate to a friend or family member in crisis. There are distinct differences between the two types of empathy. Cognitive Empathy Taking another persons perspective Imagining what its like in another persons shoes Understanding someones feelings Emotional Empathy Sharing an emotional experience Feeling distress in response to someones pain Feeling a willingness to help someone Cognitive Empathy When we practice cognitive empathy, we are practicing taking the perspective of another person. In essence, we are imagining what it might be like to actually be this person in their situation. Cognitive empathy is also referred to as perspective-taking, which lends itself to the idea of putting ourselves in someone elses shoes. With cognitive empathy, we are trying to tap into the idea of placing ourselves in someone elses situation and gaining a better understanding of his/her experience. In moments when someone we care about is hurting, it can be easy for us to maintain a distance from it because we can see the big picture. For example, if a friend doesnt get a job she interviewed for, you can most likely see her disappointment. However, you may also recognize that she is talented and will likely find a great job soon. On the other hand, when we are practicing cognitive empathy, we can meet people where they are and understand why they would be feeling sad or disappointed after not getting the job. We practice imagining what it might be like to be them at that moment, looking at the situation or circumstance from their perspective. Emotional Empathy Imagine sitting close to a loved one, such as your child, sibling, or close friend as he begins to cry. What he is experiencing likely has an impact on us, doesnt it? We might begin to feel sad as well. When we experience emotional empathy, we are moving from the cognitive perspective-taking into a shared emotional experience. Social psychology researchers Hodges and Davis describe emotional empathy in three parts: feeling the same emotion as the other personfeeling our own distress in response to their painfeeling compassion toward the other person They note that there is a positive correlation between emotional empathy and the willingness to help others. In other words, it is more likely that someone who finds it easy to practice emotional empathy will be moved to help that person in need as well. It might be easy to see the benefit of emotional empathy in the overall health and enjoyment of our most important relationships. Is Empathy Genetic? Research has found that the ability to practice empathy is influenced by genetics. In fact, it is consistently shown that women are more likely to pick up on emotional cues and more accurately discern emotions than men. In a research study conducted with the genetic testing and analysis company 23andMe, there was a specific genetic variant identified as related to our capacity to empathize, near the gene LRRN1 on chromosome 3, which is a highly active part of the brain called the striatum. It is suggested that activity in this part of the brain is connected with our ability to feel empathy. Although there is more research to be done, these findings are helping scientists discover more about the connections between genetic influence on the development and ability to feel empathy. Nature vs. Nurture Even though genetics have been found to influence our capacity for feeling empathy, there is much to say about our social learning experiences as well. You may have already heard the phrase nature vs. nurture. This phrase references a long-standing debate among researchers, arguing what they believe to have a greater influence on our behaviors, traits, and conditions. Some researchers suggest that genetics are the primary influence, while others believe that our environment and social interactions can help us develop things like empathy. Social Learning The social learning theory, developed by psychologist Albert Bandura, combines elements of cognitive learning theory and behavioral learning theory. It is suggested that people can increase their capacity for empathy through modeling and experiencing empathy from others. When a child has not had anyone give their emotional experiences any attention, time, or value, it is understandable how the child might likely continue to experience the world and relationships without this important skill of knowing how to empathize with others. The child would have missed out on things like: being able to observe someone practicing empathy to know what it looks likethe feeling of having someone empathize when they are in needhaving someone teach them the value of emotionslearning how to build meaningful connections with people Empathy helps to close an emotional gap between people, creating a connection and a shared experience. When we dont know what a shared emotional experience feels like with someone, it can be difficult to know how to do that with others. The inability to empathize can lead to trouble at work, in relationships, within families, and within society. Imbalance Too Much Empathy As beneficial and valuable as the skill of empathy is, it is suggested that too much empathy can be detrimental to ones emotional well-being, their health, and their relationships. Emotional empathy is a building block of connection between people. The shared emotional experience prompts us to move closer to someone, to comfort them, and to offer reassurance and help. However, emotional empathy means that our bodies are responding to the emotions we are experiencing while in the presence of the other person and their emotional experience. When there is a balanced practice of emotional empathy, we are able to allow space for sharing an emotional experience with another person while not letting our own emotional responses get in the way. When our vicarious emotional arousal becomes too great, it can get in the way of us being compassionate and empathizing. Feeling emotionally dysregulated can become overwhelming to us and result in us feeling burnt out and, ultimately, leave us not wanting to practice empathy because it feels too painful to be with someone else in their pain. Our ability to practice emotional empathy becomes a threat to our own well-being when it results in feelings of isolation, being misunderstood, and feeling inauthentic. Not Enough Empathy There are some people who are better with practicing cognitive empathy, yet who have a difficult time tapping into emotional empathy, as these two types of empathy are working from completely different systems of processing. This is the difference between cognitive processing and perspective-taking compared to emotional processing. When there is an imbalance of empathyâ€"leaning too heavily on cognitive empathy and not enough on emotional empathyâ€"our connections with people could feel strained. Although the person you are trying to help or comfort may sense that you have an understanding of her situation, which can certainly feel helpful, it may leave her with the impression that she is a bit misunderstood, unseen, or unheard. The important part of having a shared emotional experience with that person in the moment is missing when there is too much cognitive empathy and not enough emotional empathy being practiced. The following is a simple example of what this might look like: Example 1: Cognitive Empathy Loved One: My grandmother just died and we were really close. (Starts to cry.)Person Using Cognitive Empathy: Im sorry, I know you are sad. She is in a better place, though, dont you think? Example 2: Emotional Empathy Loved One: My grandmother just died and we were really close. (Starts to cry.)Person Using Emotional Empathy: Im sorry to hear about your grandmother. I know you miss her so much. Im here with you. (May become tearful or express sadness.) Within this very simplistic illustration, we can get a sense of what it might feel like for the other person if we stopped with cognitive empathy and dont bring in the emotional empathy piece to the interaction. The person receives the condolences for her grandmother passing away and knows you are trying to provide comfort; however, with example 1, there is no opportunity for the person to have a shared emotional experience with you. The shared emotional experience can feel quite comforting and healing to someone in need. The Challenge Practicing both cognitive and emotional empathy is challenging. It is believed that both can be learned with intentional and consistent practice. The unique challenge with emotional empathy is that in practicing, we are likely going to have to be vulnerable and in touch with our own emotional responses. The ability to regulate our own emotional distress will be key, but it is something that can be very difficult for people to do because of things such as: how we were raisedhow people treated us when we had emotional needswhat people around us taught us about emotionmessages we received about the value of emotionsfear of becoming overwhelmedfear of getting stuck in emotions with another person Finding Balance Cognitive and emotional empathy are wonderful partners and can be a fantastic pair when practiced with balance. The ability to take someones perspective and understand what it might be like to be him or her (cognitive empathy), as well as the ability to meet someone where he or she is emotionally and have a shared emotional experience (emotional empathy), can be a game-changer for most any relationship dynamic. When people feel seen, heard, and understood, using both cognitive and emotional empathy, we can do great things together. This empathetic balance helps allow for things like: CollaborationProblem SolvingCreativityEvaluationNegotiationIdentifying needsMeeting needsFeeling safeEmotional connectionTrust What You Can Do Do you want to improve your relationships with coworkers, your family members, friends, or your spouse? Practicing the balance of cognitive and emotional empathy can certainly help. Even if you feel you never learned how to empathize with others, or never had an experience of anyone empathizing with you, remember that skills of empathy can be learned. There are many things we can do to begin practicing empathy in our homes, our workplaces, and in our communities. Put Aside Your Own Viewpoints We often dont realize how much our experiences and own beliefs are influencing how we perceive people and situations. Slowing ourselves down a bit to put those things aside can help us focus on the person in front of us and help us tune in better to what is happening for him or her. Use Your Imagination As people share with you, try to imagine what it is like to be them. Use the images they are sharing, their emotions, or their circumstances and try to place yourself there, just to see what it might feel like to be them in these moments. Actively Listen Many times we try to listen to people while already developing our response or defense to what they are saying. Not only are we not able to hear what they are saying, but we often miss key pieces of information that can help us better understand what they are trying to convey. Give yourself permission to turn down the volume on your own voice and turn up the volume on the other persons voice. Be Curious It can be helpful to come from a place of curiosity about someone as they are sharing with you. As you ask them questions about their experiences, you are letting them know you are actively listening and that you want to understand. This helps people feel seen and heard and its a nice way to practice empathy. Dont Feel the Need to Fix When we are around someone in need, especially when they are experiencing challenging emotions, it can be easy for us to want to jump in and fix it. We dont like to see people hurting and we often to want to make them laugh, cheer them up, and help them look on the bright side. Even though you are trying to be helpful, this can leave people feeling unseen and unheard. Just offer space for people to share and remember that you are not responsible for fixing them. Benefits of Empathy

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Plant Domestication Dates and Locations

The domestication of plants is one of the first and most crucial steps in the development of a full-fledged, reliable agricultural (Neolithic) economy. To successfully feed a society using plants, the first humans had to continually work to improve their yield in quality and quantity. Plant domestication arose as an approach to growing and harvesting more effectively. What Is a Domesticated Plant? The traditional definition of a domesticated plant is one that has been changed from its natural state until it is no longer able to grow and reproduce without human intervention. The purpose of plant domestication is to adapt plants to make them optimal for human use/consumption. Just as the earliest domesticated crops were groomed to meet human needs, farmers had to learn to meet the needs of their tamed plants so that they would produce high-quality, bountiful, and reliable crops. In a way, they were groomed too. Plant domestication is a slow and tiresome process that is only successful when both parties—humans and plants—benefit from each other through a mutualistic relationship. The result of thousands of years of this symbiosis came to be known as coevolution. Â   Coevolution Coevolution describes the process of two species evolving to suit each others needs. Plant domestication through artificial selection is one of the best examples of this. When a human tends a plant with favorable attributes, perhaps because it has the largest and sweetest fruits or most resilient husk, and saves the seeds to replant, they are essentially guaranteeing the continuation of that particular organism. In this way, a farmer can select for the properties they desire by giving special treatment only to the best and most successful plants. Their crop, in turn, starts to take on the desirable properties the farmer selected for and disadvantageous attributes are extinguished over time. Though plant domestication via artificial selection is not foolproof—complications include long-distance trading and uncontrolled seed dispersal, accidental cross-breeding of wild and domesticated plants, and unexpected disease wiping out genetically similar plants—it demonstrates that human and plant behavior can become intertwined. When plants do what is expected of them by humans, humans work to preserve them. Examples of Domesticated Plants The domestication histories of various plants show advancements in plant-taming practices. Organized by the earliest to the most recent domesticated plants, this table provides an overview of plant domestication with the plant, location, and date of domestication. Click through to learn more about each plant. Table of Domesticated Plants Plant Location Date Emmer wheat Near East 9000 BCE Fig trees Near East 9000 BCE Foxtail Millet East Asia 9000 BCE Flax Near East 9000 BCE Peas Near East 9000 BCE Einkorn wheat Near East 8500 BCE Barley Near East 8500 BCE Chickpea Anatolia 8500 BCE Bottle gourd Asia 8000 BCE Bottle gourd Central America 8000 BCE Rice Asia 8000 BCE Potatoes Andes Mountains 8000 BCE Beans South America 8000 BCE Squash Central America 8000 BCE Maize Central America 7000 BCE Water Chestnut Asia 7000 BCE Perilla Asia 7000 BCE Burdock Asia 7000 BCE Rye Southwest Asia 6600 BCE Broomcorn millet East Asia 6000 BCE Bread wheat Near East 6000 BCE Manioc/Cassava South America 6000 BCE Chenopodium South America 5500 BCE Date Palm Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Avocado Central America 5000 BCE Grapevine Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Cotton Southwest Asia 5000 BCE Bananas Island Southeast Asia 5000 BCE Beans Central America 5000 BCE Opium Poppy Europe 5000 BCE Chili peppers South America 4000 BCE Amaranth Central America 4000 BCE Watermelon Near East 4000 BCE Olives Near East 4000 BCE Cotton Peru 4000 BCE Apples Central Asia 3500 BCE Pomegranate Iran 3500 BCE Garlic Central Asia 3500 BCE Hemp East Asia 3500 BCE Cotton Mesoamerica 3000 BCE Soybean East Asia 3000 BCE Azuki Bean East Asia 3000 BCE Coca South America 3000 BCE Sago Palm Southeast Asia 3000 BCE Squash North America 3000 BCE Sunflower Central America 2600 BCE Rice India 2500 BCE Sweet Potato Peru 2500 BCE Pearl millet Africa 2500 BCE Sesame Indian subcontinent 2500 BCE Marsh elder (Iva annua) North America 2400 BCE Sorghum Africa 2000 BCE Sunflower North America 2000 BCE Bottle gourd Africa 2000 BCE Saffron Mediterranean 1900 BCE Chenopodium China 1900 BCE Chenopodium North America 1800 BCE Chocolate Mesoamerica 1600 BCE Coconut Southeast Asia 1500 BCE Rice Africa 1500 BCE Tobacco South America 1000 BCE Eggplant Asia 1st century BCE Maguey Mesoamerica 600 CE Edamame China 13th century CE Vanilla Central America 14th century CE Dates and locations of plant domestication

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Movie Review Star Wars - 2035 Words

When George Lucas first pitched the idea of Star Wars, a space-western, to movie executives back in the 1970’s; I’m sure he never imagined it to be the cultural phenomenon that it turned out to be. The original Star Wars trilogy (Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope, Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back, Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi), earned more two billion dollars, after adjusted for inflation in North America (1). Then sixteen years later the next three Star Wars movies were released (Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith), and earned more then 1.5 billion dollars at the box office in North America after adjusted for inflation (1). Not only were the movies box office hits, the movies were also critically acclaimed. Episode VI was nominated for 11 Oscars including Best Picture and won seven including a special achievement award (9). The prequels were also nominat ed for a total of five Academy Awards (9). With all of that aside Star Wars is more then all of that, the franchise has influenced movies and how audiences get involved with movies. Star Wars was not the original Blockuster, Episode IV came out two years late to get that title, that title goes to Jaws. Jaws, much like Star Wars, caused the shift from the film industries typical, personal filmmaking, to a much faster paced, big budget movies, aimed towards younger audiences (10). Before Star Wars came outShow MoreRelatedMovie Review : Star Wars1214 Words   |  5 Pagesnew toy? In this Duracell commercial a young boy receives a toy light saber like the ones used in Star Wars. As the boy opens up the box to his new light saber, he finds that batteries are not included. He then races upstairs to his bedroom and finds Duracell batteries. 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Officer Selection Free Essays

Because of the range of duties, officers should possess certain traits: hectically agility, the ability to cope with difficult situations, well-developed writing skills, good communication skills, sound Judgment, compassion, strong powers of observation, and the ability to both exert and respect commands of authority. Minimum Requirements Every department sets its own standards when considering candidates for police officers, however most departments require a series of minimum standards which perspective applicants must have. All applicants must be at least 21 years of age and have or be eligible to receive a driver’s license because their primary duty Is patrol, ND they must be able to drive to respond to Incidents. We will write a custom essay sample on Officer Selection or any similar topic only for you Order Now Police officers must also be able to possess a firearm. In order to qualify to own a firearm, a person must be at least twenty-one years old. Applicants must also have no Felony convictions. Convicted felons also are prohibited from possessing a firearm, which thereby bars them from becoming police officers. Individuals with domestic violence convictions are no longer able to possess a firearm, thereby prohibiting them from becoming police officers as well (Grant Terry, 2009). Finally many police departments now have educational standards for recruits. Nearly all departments require officers to have at least a high school diploma. And many require at least some college credits. Written Examination The written examination is the first step in becoming a police officer once a formal application has been submitted. The test varies by department, but It might be a civil service exam, an exam produced by the individual police department, or one produced by a private testing company. The exam does not test specific legal or criminal Justice knowledge, but rather evaluates the candidate’s basic reading, writing, and comprehension skills. The exam will likely contain a number of different sections, whereby the candidate must be able to understand and write In English, write a sample essay, understand basic mathematics, memorize facts, show sound 1 OFF reasoning Ana logic, Ana analyze potential scenarios . For clamatorial ten written examination is developed by the California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) and measures reading comprehension and writing abilities (caperers. Com, 2011). Departmental Interview Departmental Interview will evaluate the applicant’s interpersonal skills, problem solving, oral communication and other abilities not tested by other examination components. The interview is not scored; however, the interview panel will make recommendations regarding who should proceed in the final hiring process. The interview can be structured, unstructured, or a combination or both. In a structured interview, the candidate is asked a series of questions regarding the Job and his or her specific abilities. Structured questions such as â€Å"Do you drink alcohol†, usually require specified answers direct answers. The alternative to this would be to conduct a semi structured interview with open ended questions on particular topics. Structured interviews allow for a better comparison of candidates on specific topics, pen-ended questions are likely to elicit more information. Though the candidate must pass all phases of the selection process in order to be hired as a police officer, the interview process is critical in the assessment of the candidate’s attitudes, appearance, and demeanor. Physical Ability Examination The Physical Ability Examination will measure physical performance through a series of exercises that will be administered on a pass/fail basis. Measuring a police candidate’s level of physical agility is a crucial part of the selection process, although the physical agility test has been controversial and has undergone significant hangs since its inception (Grant Terry, 2009). The Physical Ability Examination has gone through many changes. Until the sass’s the test required applicants to demonstrate substantial upper body strength which kept many women from completing the test successfully thereby eliminating them from the candidate pool. The introduction of Title VII in 1972 as well as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines on sex discrimination barred the refusal to hire a female applicant because of characteristics attributed to women as a class and thus the physical agility tests have changed considerably in the past few decades. Psychological and Polygraph Tests A Polygraph Examination is used to verify the veracity and accuracy of information submitted by candidates regarding, but not necessarily limited to: use of controlled substances; driving, criminal, medical and employment history; and other Job-related factors. The polygraph works by recording involuntary physiological changes in the body that occur when a person is partaking in conscious deceit. The purpose of the psychological screening process is to measure intelligence and to identify personality characteristics and any mental disorders that may lead to problematic behavior in he future (Grant Terry, 2009). Psychological screening, particularly those measuring conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and integrity – have been shown to aid in the prediction of on-the-Job performance across a wide variety of occupations, including peace officers (POST. A. Gob, 2011) It is important to screen out individuals who may exhibit mental or personality deficits, because police officers interact with individuals on a daily basis and often in high-stress situations. Background Investigation I en employment, connecter Ana Docudrama Investigation consists AT a tongue duty of the candidate’s history prior to appointment to determine fitness for this employment. Reasons for rejection include use of controlled substances, felony convictions, repeated or serious violations of the law, inability to work cooperatively with co-workers, inability to accept supervision, or other relevant factors. Candidates who are disqualified during the background investigation process must wait two years from the date of disqualification before they may reapply to take the Police Officer examination. Candidates who are disqualified because of uncorrectable deiced problems, serious drug abuse or because of criminal records may possibly not be allowed to reapply. Training Once a police candidate has passed through the selection process, he or she is hired on probation, a trial period of one or two years during which the officer is evaluated. This probationary period begins with training at the police academy, a school where officers learn on-the-Job techniques prior to receiving full police powers. Officers must train at the academy for up to 1,100 hours, and they receive full pay and benefits from the time they enter the academy (Grant Terry, 2009). Training is rigorous, demanding and exhausting. It is also a rewarding life-changing experience. New officers learn how much they are capable of by succeeding at seemingly impossible challenges, both physical and mental Mainland. Com, 2011). While in the academy, the officer receives educational as well as practical physical The Los Angles Police Department (LAPS) Academy Curriculum includes training. Academics, which encompasses arrest and booking procedures, preliminary investigation techniques, radio and communications, report writing, traffic investigation, and traffic enforcement, Driving, which includes emergency procedures ND defensive driving techniques, Firearms Training, which trains candidates in effective and safe use of police issued firearms, Law, which covers search and seizure, evidence, laws of arrest, crimes against persons and property, sex crimes, crimes against children, and other general criminal statutes falling under the California Penal Code, Los Angles Municipal Code, Welfare and Institutions Code, and Federal Laws, and finally physical training which builds strength and endurance through physical conditioning while promoting a positive attitude toward a fitness lifestyle. It also encompasses training in physical arrest techniques, controls, and weaponless defense Mainland. Com, 2011). Development Once a new police officer leaves the academy, they are assigned a field training officer (FOOT) who assists the new officer to acclimate into the police culture, or experience the solicitation process. Solicitation involves learning the values, social processes, and behaviors associated with the police institution. It involves the patterns of interaction that depend on the relations of individuals in particular settings (Grant Terry, 2009). Foot can have a significant influence over new officers ND assist them in dealing with the inevitable stress and cynicism of the Job. Conclusion Selecting qualified police officers is a lengthy, competitive process, involving multiple phases. Candidates are exposed too battery of tests both physically and mentally to ascertain their overall qualifications and abilities. How to cite Officer Selection, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson free essay sample

Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson Jesse Jackson Psy/304 February 4, 2001 Dr. Marcy Satan Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson Introduction Michael Jackson was born August 29, 1958. Born the eighth of 10 children, Michael grew up in a working class family in a small three bedroom home in Gary, Indiana. As a child, Michael struggled with his fame. He never lived a normal childhood and throughout his adulthood he tried to recapture his lost youth. Although labeled as an outstanding entertainer and humanitarian in the world, Michael became dependent on pain medications. Scandals of child molestation and Michael’s obsession with his appearance further fueled his addiction. Overdosing on pain medication ultimately would take the life of Michael Jackson on June 25, 2009. Influences of Heredity and Environment According to Kowalski Weston (2009) He had sleepovers with kids that further led to allegations of child molestation. Michael did not see that he was doing anything wrong. We will write a custom essay sample on Life Span Development and Personality of Michael Jackson or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In his mind he was a kid at heart and was trying to recapture his lost childhood. These issues led Michael to have an emotional and social development problem. Family Issues â€Å"The importance of parents to child development is sufficiently obvious that it is practically axiomatic† (Sheppard, 2008). Michael had a very rocky relationship with his father, Joseph Jackson. Michael’s father would push Michael to perfection. Even though Michael was only a kid at the time, he was to rehearse daily and if he ade a mistake his father would beat him. According to Drehle (2009), â€Å"Joe Jackson drove his sons relentlessly. He ridiculed their shortcomings and punished them for their mistakes. He supervised daily practice sessions with a whip in his hand; he beat the kids with fists, hangers, a razor strop. † Michael grew deathly afraid of his father and labeled his father as a vicious and mean man. Michael was not allowed to play with the other kids in the neighborhood. He would go to school, when not home schooled, go home, and practice until bedtime. Michael resented his father for taking away his childhood. Michaels never understood why his father pushed him so hard. Michael’s relationship with this father drove him to seek perfection. No matter what Michael accomplished in life, he continued to seek to please his father. Theories of Personality As Michael evolved into his teenage and adult years, he could not grasp his identity. â€Å"Erikson described identity as a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image† (Cherry, 2012). Michael knew what was expected of him. He was viewed as a great entertainer, but he struggled with his self-identity. Michael’s lack of self-image is explained by ‘Erikson’s Psychosocial Theories of  Personality’. According to Kowalski Weston (2009), â€Å"Erikson observed that adolescents wrestle with questions about who they are and what they believe during puberty, a time in which teenagers have a surge of new feelings and impulses. † Michael’s body was going through changes that he could not readily adapt. His voice deepened and he struggled with acne. He became obsessed with his appearance and through the years changed his appearance through plastic surgeries. Michael ultimately throughout his life was going through an identity crisis. â€Å"In Erik Eriksons stages of psychosocial development, the emergence of an identity crisis occurs during the teenage years in which people struggle between feelings of identity versus role confusion† (Cherry, 2009). Michael struggled to make a commitment to his identity. His identity status could best described as moratorium, â€Å"the status of a person who is actively involved in exploring different identities, but has not made a commitment† (Cherry, 2009). Theoretical Approach

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Using the Spanish Verb Pensar

Using the Spanish Verb Pensar Pensar typically means to think, but it is not always used in the same way as the English verb. Most significantly, the words that follow pensar might not be the ones you would expect. Keep in mind that pensar is conjugated irregularly. When the stem pens- is stressed, it becomes piens-. Thus, the present indicative forms are pienso (I think), piensas (you think), piensa (he/she/you think), pensamos (we think), pensis (you think), piensan (they/you think). Here are the main uses of pensar: Using Pensar by Itself Most frequently, pensar, when used by itself, is the equivalent of to think. Pienso, luego existo. (I think, therefore I am.)No pienso mal de ellos. (I dont think bad of them.)El que piensa demasiado siente poco. (The one who thinks too much feels little.) Using Pensar Que Pensar que is a very common way of indicating opinions or beliefs. It often is translated appropriately as to believe rather than to think. In the positive form, it is followed by a verb in the indicative mood. Note that while que in this usage usually can be translated to English as that, it often can be left untranslated, as in third and fourth examples. Pienso que vivo como un cerdo. (I think that I live like a pig.)Mi madre piensa que el doctor es culpable. (My mother believes that the doctor is at fault.)No quiero pensar que me equivoquà ©. (I dont want to believe I made a mistake.)Tambià ©n pensbamos que la recuperacià ³n econà ³mica iba a ser ms rpida. (We also used to believe the economic recovery was going to be quicker.) When used negatively, no pensar que is followed in standard Spanish by a verb in the subjunctive mood. It is not unusual, however, to heard the indicative mood used in casual Spanish. No pienso que seamos diferentes. (I dont believe we are different.)No pensbamos que fueran a darnos problemas. (We didnt think they were going to give us any problems.)Mis amigos no piensan que yo tenga ms de 21 aà ±os. (My friends dont believe Im more than 21 years old.) Using Pensar De Pensar de is another way to say to have an opinion about. Esto es lo que pienso de tu regalo. (This is what I think about your gift.)Tenemos que cambiar de lo que pensamos de nosotros mismos. (We need to change what we think about ourselves.)Ya he indicado antes lo que pienso de la clase. (I have already indicated what I think about the class.)No es bueno preocuparse por lo que los otros piensan de usted. (It isnt good to worry yourself about what others think about about you.) Pensar sobre can also mean to have an opinion about, especially when used in a question. Pensar de is more common.  ¿Quà © piensas sobre la nueva web? (What do you think about the new web site?) ¿Quà © piensan sobre los ataques suicidas como instrumento tctico para ser utilizado en una guerra? (What do they think about suicide attacks as a tactical instrument to be used in a war?) Using Pensar En When followed by en, pensar typically means to think about in the sense of having ones thoughts focus on something. Note that this isnt the same as using to think about in the sense of having an opinion. Estoy pensando en ti. (Im thinking about you.)Pablo no piensa en los riesgos. (Paul doesnt think about the risks.)Las chicas sà ³lo piensan en divertirse. (The girls think only about having fun.)Nadie piensa en cambiar las baterà ­as. (Nobody thinks about changing the batteries.) Pensar sobre can mean basically the same thing as pensar en but is much less common and is probably overused by English speakers speaking Spanish as a second language or when translating from English to Spanish. Pienso sobre eso dà ­a y noche. (I think about it day and night.)Primero hacen y luego piensan sobre ello. (First they acted, and then they thought about it.) Following Pensar With an Infinitive When followed by an infinitive, pensar is used to indicate plans or intentions. Pensamos salir maà ±ana. (Were intending to leave tomorrow.)Yo pienso estudiar medicina de veterinaria en la universidad. (Im planning on studying veterinary medicine at the university.)Pensaron salir de Venezuela, pero decidieron permanecer. (The were planning to leave Venezuela, but they stayed.)

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society

Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was a sweeping set of social domestic policy programs initiated by President Lyndon B. Johnson during 1964 and 1965 focusing mainly on eliminating racial injustice and ending poverty in the United States. The term â€Å"Great Society† was first used by President Johnson in a speech at Ohio University. Johnson later revealed more details of the program during an appearance at the University of Michigan. In implementing one of the most impactful arrays of new domestic policy programs in the history of the U.S. federal government, the legislation authorizing the Great Society programs addressed issues such as poverty, education, medical care, and racial discrimination. Indeed, the Great Society legislation enacted by the United States Congress from 1964 to 1967 represented the most extensive legislative agenda undertaken since the Great Depression era New Deal of President Franklin Roosevelt. The flurry of legislative action earned the 88th and 89th Congress the moniker of the â€Å"Great Society Congress.† However, the realization of the Great Society actually began in 1963, when then-Vice President Johnson inherited the stalled â€Å"New Frontier† plan proposed by President John F. Kennedy before his assassination in 1963. To succeed in moving Kennedy’s initiative forward, Johnson utilized his skills of persuasion, diplomacy, and extensive knowledge of the politics of Congress. In addition, he was able to ride the rising tide of liberalism spurred by the Democratic landslide in the 1964 election that turned the House of Representatives of 1965 into the most liberal House since 1938 under the Franklin Roosevelt administration. Unlike Roosevelt’s New Deal, which had been driven forward by sweeping poverty and economic calamity, Johnson’s Great Society came just as the prosperity of the post-World War II economy was fading but before middle and upper-class Americans began to feel the decline   Johnson Takes Over the New Frontier Many of Johnson’s Great Society programs were inspired by the social initiatives included in the â€Å"New Frontier† plan proposed by Democratic Senator John F. Kennedy during his 1960 presidential campaign. Although Kennedy was elected president over Republican Vice President Richard Nixon, Congress was reluctant to adopt most of his New Frontier initiatives. By the time he was assassinated in November 1963, President Kennedy had persuaded Congress to pass only a law creating the Peace Corps, a law increase in the minimum wage, and a law dealing with equal housing. The lingering national trauma of Kennedy’s assassination created a political atmosphere that provided Johnson an opportunity to gain Congress’ approval of some of JFK’s New Frontier initiatives. Harnessing his well-known powers of persuasion and political connections made during his many years as a U.S. Senator and Representative, Johnson swiftly managed to gain congressional approval of two of the most important laws forming Kennedy’s vision for the New Frontier: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in employment based on race or gender and banned racial segregation in all public facilities.The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 created the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, now called the Office of Community Services, charged with eliminating the causes of poverty in America. In addition, Johnson secured funding for Head Start, a program that  still provides free preschool programs for disadvantaged children today. Also in the area of educational improvement, the Volunteers in Service to America, now known as AmeriCorps VISTA, program was created to provide volunteer teachers to schools in poverty-prone regions.    At last, in 1964, Johnson got a chance to start working toward his own Great Society. Johnson and Congress Build the Great Society The same Democratic landslide victory in the 1964 election that swept Johnson into his own full term as president also swept many new progressive and liberal Democratic lawmakers into Congress.    During his 1964 campaign, Johnson famously declared the â€Å"war on poverty,† to help build what he called a new â€Å"Great Society† in America. In the election, Johnson won 61% of the popular vote and 486 of 538 electoral college votes to easily defeat ultra-conservative Republican Arizona Sen. Barry Goldwater. Drawing on his many years of experience as a legislator and strong Democratic control of Congress, Johnson quickly began to win passage of his Great Society legislation. From January 3, 1965, to January 3, 1967, Congress enacted: The Wilderness Act, which protected over 9 million acres of forestland from development;The Voting Rights Act banning literacy tests and other practices intended to deny African-Americans the right to vote;The Elementary and Secondary Education Act providing federal funding for public schools;The Social Security Amendments of 1965, which created Medicare and Medicaid;The Older Americans Act of 1965 creating a wide range of home and community-based services for older Americans;The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ending discriminatory immigration quotas based on ethnicity;The Freedom of Information Act making government records more easily available to the people; andThe Housing and Urban Development Act providing funding specifically for construction of low-income housing. In addition, Congress enacted laws strengthening the anti-pollution Air and Water Quality Acts; raised standards ensuring the safety of consumer products; and created the National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities. Vietnam and Racial Unrest Slow the Great Society Even as his Great Society seemed to be gaining momentum, two events were brewing that by 1968 would seriously jeopardize Johnson’s legacy as a progressive social reformer. Despite the passage of anti-poverty and anti-discrimination laws, racial unrest and civil rights protests – sometimes violent - grew in frequency. While Johnson would continue to use his political power in an attempt to end segregation and maintain law and order, few solutions were found. Even more damaging to the goals of the Great Society, ever larger amounts of money originally intended to fight the war on poverty was being used to fight the Vietnam War instead. By the end of his term in 1968, Johnson suffered criticism from conservative Republicans for his domestic spending programs and by his fellow liberal Democrats for his hawkish support for expanding the Vietnam War effort.    In March 1968, hoping to prompt peace negotiations, Johnson ordered a near halt to American bombing of North Vietnam. At the same time, he surprisingly withdrew as a candidate for re-election to a second term in order to devote all of his efforts to the quest for peace. While some of the Great Society programs have been eliminated or scaled back today, many of them, such as Medicare and Medicaid programs of the Older Americans Act and public education funding endure. Indeed, several of Johnson’s Great Society programs grew under Republican presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Although Vietnam War-ending peace negotiations had begun when President Johnson left office, he did not live to see them completed, dying of a heart attack on January 22, 1973, at his Texas Hill Country ranch.